Friday, May 22, 2020

Is Love An Unattainable Ideal Essay - 1388 Words

Is true love an unattainable ideal? Do we all have a soul mate? Is love just an exchange of lies for the purpose of flattery? These questions, and countless others, regarding love have been pondered by philosophers and pop music stars alike for hundreds of years. William Shakespeare examines these questions from two vantage points in â€Å"Sonnet 116† and â€Å"Sonnet 138.† Firstly, in â€Å"Sonnet 116†, Shakespeare analyzes love in a rhetorical manner, meaning that he is not discussing a specific relationship of his, but theorizing on the concept of love as a whole, in abstract terms. Conversely, in â€Å"Sonnet 138†, Shakespeare analyzes love in a specific manner. He looks inward to inspect a relationship between him and a woman, also known as The Dark Lady, and paints a much different picture of love than in â€Å"Sonnet 116†, in specific terms. In William Shakespeare’s â€Å"Sonnet 116† and â€Å"Sonnet 138†, Shakespeare ana lyzes love in abstract and specific terms; concluding that abstract love relies on affection, does not change or age, and is built upon a solid foundation of truth, while specific love, on the other hand, relies on lust, actively ignores change and aging, and revolves around deception. These two sonnets paint entirely adverse portraits of love in order to emphasize the dichotomy between the poet’s expectations of love, and the reality which does not live up to the poet’s expectations. Firstly, how time and age affect love is one of the most obvious points of contention betweenShow MoreRelatedHow The Ideal Love Is Unattainable1373 Words   |  6 Pagespoet from 1785 until 1830, when the Romantic Movement ended. Many of his poems published as satires and root back to his ability to express his thoughts about things going on in his life, specifically his childhood. Writing about how the ideal love is unattainable comes through commonly through Byron’s works, this conclusion stems from his childhood. Byron grew up with an ill illusion of women with his mom, Katherine Gordon, being diagnosed with bipolar disorder and his nurse, May Gray, sexually abusingRead MoreThe Effects Of Time In Sonnet 138 And Sir Walter Raleighs Sonnet 116872 Words   |  4 Pagesother themes, but still portray time. â€Å"Sonnet 138† is a man pondering the changes of his relationship with his lover. â€Å"The Nymph’s Reply to the Shepherd† is a reply to a lover’s request for her to live with him and be his love. Both poems exhibits a lover whose youth, trust, and love have been changed over time; however, each offer a different outlook: one optimistic, one pessimistic. Time is the natural predator of youthfulness, and Shakespeare and Raleigh both portray it as such. In â€Å"Sonnet 138†Read MoreThe Depiction Of Women During The Renaissance Could Be1727 Words   |  7 Pagesthey weren’t viewed as multi-faceted beings like men, is where the issue of how women were represented in Renaissance art and literature lies. Many male writers and scholars of the time presented works pertaining ideals and ‘guides’ that women should follow so that they could become the ideal woman, yet this is where the trouble lies – it is the masculine deciding what the feminine should be, instead of the feminine being decided by the women themselves. Of course, there is some forgiveness to thisRead MoreWhat Ideas About Love and the Past Are Explored in ‘Love Songs in Age’ and ‘Wild Oats’ by Philip Larkin? Use ‘Down the M4’ by Dannie Abse to Illuminate Your Response.1403 Words   |  6 PagesThroughout Love Songs in Age and Wild Oats, Philip Larkin uses various literary techniques, such as imagery, structure and symbolism to convey certain aspects of love and the passing of time. These aspects are illuminated by Dannie Abse in Down the M4. Love Songs in Age pictures a woman, perhaps Larkin’s mother, who has kept the musical scores of songs she used to play, perhaps on the piano, and rediscovers them after many years, when she is a widow. In the poem, Larkin uses lexical choice to exploreRead MoreThe Disillusionment Of The American Dream1050 Words   |  5 PagesGatsby, F. Scott Fitzgerald reveals the American Dream is an unattainable illusion and the materialism led to the corruption of the American Dream in the Roaring Twenties. Gatsby, Daisy and Myrtle all have been fail to achieve their dreams in the book and destroy by the American Dream. Jay Gatsby’s, one of the main characters, American Dream is corrupted and ended in failure. His dream to become rich and then win Daisy back, who is in love with Gatsby five years ago but now is married to a rich manRead MoreThe Curious Incident Of The Dog In The Night-Time Analysis946 Words   |  4 Pagesthoughts of normality in society through Christopher and his interpretation of certain aspects of life The ideals of humans conform society into making how Christopher views the world not normal. No one perceives certain aspects of life through the same lenses. Although the idealistic thought of normality states the opposite, everyone does see things differently Haddon connects with the ideals of normality in his novel, The Curious Incident of a Dog in the Night-Time. He uses Christopher and the factRead MoreEssay on Attitudes Toward Love in French literature838 Words   |  4 Pagesof humans, literature tends to reflect the ideals and thoughts of its writer, while also providing a glimpse into the society, in which the writer penned the story. Perhaps one of the greatest and most intriguing human emotions is love and this theme is present in literature from its beginning to the present day. However, as people and societies changed and evolved, so did the attitudes toward love change with the times. In Medieval French Literature, love is often portrayed as an unreachable emotionRead MoreNormality In The Curious Incident Of The Dog In The Night-Time941 Words   |  4 PagesFirst, Haddon unveils the reality of the idealistic thoughts of normality in society through Christopher and his interpretation of certain aspects of life. The ideals of humans, conform society into making how Christopher views the world not normal. No one perceives certain aspects of life through the same lenses. Haddon connects with the ideals of normality in his novel, The Curious Incident of a Dog in the Night-Time. He uses Christopher and the fact that he only wants to get a degree and a job, earnRead MoreWhat is Beauty? Essay1385 Words   |  6 Pagesby many to explain for this discrepancy, but what does that quickly-spat out phrase even mean? In reality, while the adage is partially true, beauty is not relative or subject to our human whim - it is an ideal created and truly attained only by God, which as His children we are to reflect in love. With a brief analysis, the adage â€Å"Beauty is in the eye of the beholder† perfectly explains and melds into our personal selves, our culture, and the world today. What do people mean when they state thisRead MoreThe Great Gatsby By F. Scott Fitzgerald1152 Words   |  5 PagesGreat Gatsby, the yearning for the past filled with flourishing dreams and ideals is strong enough for them to strive to repeat it. Jay Gatsby’s idealism of the American dream lies in the past with Daisy. To have Daisy’s love is to have her wealth and the possibility of being able to achieve anything. However, in the end, Gatsby’s pursuit is impossible because it is the money he wishes to gain that corrupts the purity of his ideal. Similar to the flaw in Gatsby’s dream, the process of gaining wealth to

Saturday, May 9, 2020

A Streetcar Named Desire By Tennessee Williams - 1263 Words

The dawn of the twentieth century beheld changes in almost every aspect of the day-to-day lives of women, from the domestic domain to the public. By the midpoint of the twentieth century, women s activities and concerns had been recognized by the society in previously male-dominating world. The end of the nineteenth century saw tremendous growth in the suffrage movement in England and the United States, with women struggling to attain political equality. However, this was not to last however, and by the fifties men had reassumed their more dominant role in society. Tennessee Williams wrote A Streetcar Named Desire around the time this reversal was occurring in American society. In this play male dominance is clear. Women are represented as delicate, reserved, and silent, confined to a domestic world that isolated them from the harsh realities of the world. By analyzing the character of Stanley; a masculine and Stella; a symbol of femininity; and other characters of this play, readers can clearly see how male-dominated world it was. The play portrays Stanley’s masculine character in the very beginning. Williams writes, â€Å"Stanley carries his bowling jacket and a red-stained package from a butcher’s† (Williams 13). Williams uses props to emphasize Stanley’s ‘primitive’ masculinity. Another use of pros by Williams to portray male dominance, â€Å"Stanley, Steve, Mitch, and Pablo wear colored shirts, solid blues, a purple, a red-and-white-check, a light green, and they are men at theShow MoreRelatedA Streetcar Named Desire By Tennessee Williams1109 Words   |  5 Pagesâ€Å"A Streetcar Named Desire† is a play written by Tennessee Williams. Williams was born in Columbus, Mississippi but with a different name. He changed his name from Thomas Lanier Williams to what the readers know today as Tennessee Williams. (Forman). Williams is widely known for his plays, short stories, and poems across the world. He has won many awards for his work such as The New York Criti cs’ Circle Award and 2 Pulitzer awards. The play â€Å"A Streetcar Named Desire he won his first Pulitzer PrizeRead MoreA Streetcar Named Desire By Tennessee Williams1442 Words   |  6 PagesThroughout Tennessee Williams’s play, â€Å"A Streetcar Named Desire† one can learn a large portion about his personal life. In the play the character, Blanche has a mental illness the same as his sister Rose had in her lifetime. Blanche’s ex-husband was also homosexual and he made the point to say that he left her for a man and Williams himself was also a homosexual. Tennessee chose for the story to be based in New Orleans, which was a crumbling town at the time and Williams was living a crumbling lifeRead MoreA Streetcar Named Desire By Tennessee Williams928 Words   |  4 PagesAnalysis Paper: A Streetcar Named Desire For my analysis paper, I have chosen the full-length play by Tennessee Williams, A Streetcar Named Desire. The drama containing several forms of realism was released in December of 1947 and stayed open on Broadway for two years until December of 1949. The play in set in New Orleans, Louisiana in a simi-poor area, but has a certain amount of charm that goes along with it. Williams creates a vast web of emotional conflicts thought all the characters, whichRead MoreA Streetcar Named Desire, By Tennessee Williams1629 Words   |  7 PagesA Streetcar Named Desire, written by Tennessee Williams, was first performed on December 3rd, 1947. Chronicling the actions and events that take place when two sisters are reunited, A Streetcar Named Desire is regarded as one of Tennessee William’s most successful plays. Likewise, â€Å"Blank Space†, written and performed by Taylor Swift, was first performed November 23rd, during the 2014 American Music Awards. â€Å"Blank Space† s pent 22 weeks in the top 40 charts and is featured on the best selling albumRead MoreA Streetcar Named Desire By Tennessee Williams Essay1226 Words   |  5 PagesA Streetcar Named Desire In the summer of post World War II in New Orleans, Louisiana lives hard working, hardheaded Stanley and twenty-five year old pregnant, timid Stella Kowalski in a charming two-bedroom apartment on Elysian Fields. Stella’s older sister Blanche Dubois appears in the first scene unexpectedly from Laurel, Mississippi carrying everything she owns. In Tennessee Williams’ A Streetcar Named Desire, despite Blanche’s desire to start fresh in New Orleans, her snobbish nature, inabilityRead MoreA Streetcar Named Desire by Tennessee Williams672 Words   |  3 Pagesof the era—is Tennessee Williams’ A Streetcar Named Desire, a tale of one woman’s destruction due to Southern society’s changing moral values. The destruction of the Old Southern society around the main character, Blanche DuBois, causes her to go insane and she cannot stand the low morals that the New South is carrying in its baggage. Because of his Southern roots, Tennessee Williams’ past is able to shine through his work. Born to a drunken shoe maker and a Southern belle, Williams was supportedRead MoreA Streetcar Named Desire By Tennessee Williams1054 Words   |  5 Pagescalled â€Å"A Streetcar Named Desire†, there are numerous amounts of tragic events that not only affected the person in the event, but others around them as well. A tragedy, or tragic event, is known to bring chaos, destruction, distress, and even discomfort such as a natural disaster or a serious accident. A tragedy in a story can also highlight the downfall of the main character, or sometimes one of the more important character. In this book, â€Å"A Streetcar Named Desire†, written by Tennessee Williams, heRead MoreTennessee Williams A Streetcar Named Desire929 Words   |  4 PagesThe â€Å"Desire’s† Breakdown Tennessee Williams’ A Streetcar Named Desire is a web of themes, complicated scenarios, and clashes between the characters. Therefore, it might’ve been somehow difficult to find out who the protagonist of this play is if it wasn’t for Aristotle’s ideas of a good tragedy because neither of the main characters, Stanley Kowalski and Blanche Dubois, is completely good nor bad. According to Aristotle’s Poetics, a good tragedy requires the protagonist to undergo a change of statusRead MoreTennessee Williams A Streetcar Named Desire964 Words   |  4 PagesLike many people in the world, the characters in Tennessee William’s play, A Streetcar Named Desire, are troubled by anxiety and insecurities. Life in New Orleans during the 1940s was characterized by the incredible variety of music, lively and bright atmosphere, and diverse population, while in the midst of the ongoing World War II. Culture was rich and fruitful because the city developed into a â€Å"melting pot† of people from all over the world. Due to the wide-range in population, the people ofRead MoreA Streetcar Named Desire By Tennessee Williams2024 Words   |  9 PagesA Streetcar Named Desire was written by Tennessee Williams in the late 1940s. The play takes place in New Orleans, Louisiana. A Streetcar Named Desire is a tragedy about a Mississippi school teacher, Blanche DuBois, who travels to New Orleans to visit her sister and brother-in-law, Stella and Stanley Kowalski. Throughout this play, Williams displays the destruction of Blanche DuBois’ life by alcoholism, her lust for young boys, and Stanley Kowalski. In this play there are distinct differences between

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Scaling Social Entrepreneurship Free Essays

Social Entrepreneurship Should Address the Large Social Problems 53 VII- Scaling Social Entrepreneurship 58 VIII- The Conclusions 81 Footnotes 5 Many people stimulated my thinking on social entrepreneurship during my years at the non-profit foundation One Laptop per Child (OLAP). Their ideas may not be fully acknowledged in this book. I would like to thank Giuliani Atomic, Marina Cortes, Chuck Kane, Walter Bender, and Miguel Brenner for their friendship, patient explanations and insights that enabled me to hopefully better understand social problems and how social entrepreneurship can be applied to achieve solutions to such problems. We will write a custom essay sample on Scaling Social Entrepreneurship or any similar topic only for you Order Now Chuck also arranged for me to teach a course in social entrepreneurship each January in 2011-2015 at the MIT Sloan School of Management. Richard Bernstein of Greenberg Trauma should also be recognized for bringing me the opportunity to work for the first time In my career in the non-profit sector. As explained in the following Introduction, a single comment by Nicholas Negotiate led me to write this book. Another comment from Nicholas may be the basis for my third book. Any errors in this book are solely my responsibility. Many people encouraged me to write a book about OLAP. I elected not to do such a book but rather to more generally discuss the lessons I learned about how to scale a social entrepreneurship project. For more on the philosophy and history of OLAP I My favorite OLAP picture. West Bank 2010 8 Introduction From September 2009 until April 2013 1 served as the CUFF of One Laptop per Child Association. The mission of OLAP is to provide a modern education through a connected laptop to every child in the developing world. Nicholas Negotiate, Seymour Paper and several other professors and staff at the MIT Media Lab founded OLAP in 2005. Nicholas was the co-founder of the oral famous MIT Media Lab and Seymour, his colleague at the Media Lab, was one of the leading authorities in the area of how to facilitate child learning through computers. When Nicholas founded the MIT Media Lab he adopted two principles that established the culture of the organization: 1. â€Å"Demo or die† 2. â€Å"Do the impossible† â€Å"Demo or die† basically determined the type of research that was desired. Rather than writing academic papers, students at the Media Lab were required to develop working prototypes, either physical working models or working computer code for computer-based solutions. Paper’s views on constructionist and constructivism in learning probably contributed to this approach. Alan Kay, another MIT faculty member of considerable distinction, may have also influenced this tenet. â€Å"Do the Impossible† defined the types of problems that were acceptable to work on and was based on the thinking of the legendary MIT professor Marvin Minsk. Students were encouraged to work on large, difficult problems where the technology for a solution did not already exist. This focus on large problems is consistent with the concept in entrepreneurship to focus on large market opportunities, although at the Media Lab it was understood that the sponsors of the Media Lab would license and commercialism the new technology developed. This orientation toward large, difficult problems guided the philosophy and development of OLAP Loop’s mission is to provide a laptop to 1. Billion children in primary schools throughout the world. To achieve this end OLAP needed a solution that would scale on several dimensions. In one of our occasional discussions said to Nicholas that OLAP, although it originated as a detonative non-profit, was a great example of social entrepreneurship. Nicholas spooned, â€Å"social entrepreneurship does not scale. † As was the case several times, Nicholas made a single statement that prompted me to go off and think about an issue-?sometimes for several years-? which resulted in this book. Note: Nicholas’ view of the limitations of social entrepreneurship is based on a belief that to achieve scale in solving social problems an organization had to engage national governments around the world. Such governments were much more likely to â€Å"partner† with non-profits that did not have the profit motive of an entrepreneur. ] Prior to OLAP I spent 30 years working in the private sector and twenty of hose years I worked outside the U. S. I have worked in over forty countries, mostly in Asia 10 and Latin America, and I lived in Peru and Indonesia. One advantage of spending so much time overseas is that I was able to first hand observe a country’s development over a significant period of time. With the exception of China, every country that I visited beginning in the 1 sass exhibited a significant improvement in the standard of living by the start of the 21 SST century through the capitalist system of free enterprise. The examples I would cite to demonstrate my point would include Mexico, Singapore, Korea, Taiwan, Peru and Thailand, all of which were very undeveloped countries in the early 1 sass and today are vibrant economies with a significant improvement in the standard of living. While stable governments, democracy and globalization were all contributing factors in certain countries, see capitalism as the one common factor in the countries I cited and in many other countries. Based on my own experience I have great confidence in capitalist, profit companies as a way to improve peoples lives anywhere in the world and thereby address social needs. During the financial crisis of 2008 when the world economic system purportedly came close to collapse, the issue of the morality of capitalism re- emerged as a popular topic and encouraged the growth of social entrepreneurship. History often paints capitalism as fundamentally amoral, lacking a moral system. Milton Friedman’s now famous dictum that the purpose of a corporation is to maximize shareholder returns did much to popularize the absence of morality in capitalism. However, to criticize capitalism for a lack of morality based on the egregious behavior of a few individuals is comparable to criticizing the social system of 11 â€Å"government† because of the behavior of Hitler or Stalin. It is the people pirating the social system that may be immoral and generally not the system itself. My belief that capitalism can behave morally and make a social contribution is in part based on the nine years spent working in Indonesia. Indonesia is one of the poorest countries in Asia with per capita income of $600 or about $2 per day during most of the time I lived there (1990-1999). With a lot of other people helping, I built a billion dollar retail company in seven years that purchased $700 million dollars a year in locally manufactured merchandise, created 20,000 new retail jobs, built out one million square feet of retail space ere year and was one of the largest private sector tax payers in the country. These activities had a positive social and economic benefit beyond just our employees for thousands of other workers and their families in Indonesia. No socially motivated MONGO, multi-lateral bank or non-profit organization improved the number of lives we benefited operating a for-profit company. Perhaps only the Indonesian government affected more people than this private retail company. The point here is not to toot my horn but rather to show the positive impact in a poor country of a large, private, for-profit many with no explicit â€Å"social† mission. This confidence in the capitalist system instinctively makes me suspect of the need for the adjective â€Å"social† to modify entrepreneurship. (This may be similar to the debate in microeconomics over whether â€Å"utility† needed the modifier â€Å"marginal†. â€Å"Social† to modify entrepreneurship implies that this form of entrepreneurship is 12 more focused on societal, economic and environmental problems than traditional entrepreneurship. Also implied is the idea that creating social value is better or preferred to merely creating economic value. Setting aside he problem of how one might measure â€Å"social† value, would question the premise that we even need a distinction f or the social value component in social entrepreneurship, particularly given my experience in Indonesia. Despite my reluctance to acknowledge â€Å"social† as a meaningful distinction in entrepreneurship, I have organized this book on social entrepreneurship to develop the following themes: Why social entrepreneurship emerged as a new â€Å"business model†, which includes an argument for how to combine capitalism and morality as an integrated approach (Chapter I-The Emergence of Social Entrepreneurship in he 21st Century) The government’s defined role as the sole provider of â€Å"public good† has been relaxed, opening the door for the private sector to provide social services (Chapter II- Government and the Public Good) The non-profit movement has influenced the development Of social entrepreneurship, resulting in social entrepreneurs erroneously electing non- profits status. Such an election restricts access to capital markets (in my experience) and deprives them of a key resource to scale their organizations 13 which we call â€Å"society’ and the former [state] ought to provide merely a Hayes rotational entrepreneurship have made a significant contribution to addressing social problems worldwide. (Chapter VIII-The Conclusions) 15 Chapter I-The Emergence of Social Entrepreneurship in the 21 SST Century Many believe that social entrepreneurship emerged as an alternative form of entrepreneurship in the first decade of the 21st century because more and more people were turning away from â€Å"big business† in order to â€Å"do good† and â€Å"save the world†. While true for some individuals, I believe that four factors explain the emergence of social entrepreneurship: 1. A Nobel prize for Muhammad Nuns . A renewal of the question of whether capitalism is moral 3. A wide spread recognition that government alone cannot solve social problems 4. The writings of C. K. Parallax and Clayton Christensen Muhammad Nuns and C. K. Parallax deserve much of the credit for the emergence of social entrepreneurship. The fact that Nuns is from Bangladesh and Parallax is from India is not a coincidence, but rather the basis for their more profound understanding of the dynamics of developing markets and their populations. Social entrepreneurship gained international acclaim when Muhammad Nuns on the Nobel Prize in 2006 for his micro-lending activities in Bangladesh. Providing loans to foster economic development for very poor people had never been done on a large scale prior to Nuns’ Grahame Bank. Grahame Bank is now one of the largest companies in the world using social entrepreneurship as its business model, with 16 annual revenues in 201 1 exceeding $170 million. Tom’s Shoes, to be discussed in Chapter V, may indeed be larger, but I could not find any reliable information on annual revenues. The key factor to explain the success Of the Nuns’ program was that poor people actually do repay their loans (despite life to the contrary by many). I learned the same lesson in Indonesia in the asses building a credit card program for customers that earned only $1000 per year. The economic crisis of 2007 re-opened the debate from the asses about the morality of capitalism and the reasons for renewed debate were the same. A period of high economic growth and significant wealth accumulation was followed by a period of major economic collapse. Such wide swings in the economy were perceived as the fault of the capitalists and their immoral behavior, as evidenced by all the average people whose lives were disrupted hen the economy crashed. Faced With such stern criticism and claims of immorality, a natural outgrowth was for everyone, including for-profit corporations, to act in ways that were more socially responsible. One derivative idea was social entrepreneurship. Harvard Business School (HOBS) weighed in with several articles in support of capitalism and social responsibility. After all why do we need a business school if capitalism is doomed to collapse under the weight of its immoral behavior? Michael Porter, the world-renowned strategy professor at the school, described the situation after 2007: 17 The capitalist system is under siege. In recent years business increasingly has been viewed as a major cause of social, environmental, and economic problems. Companies are widely perceived to be prospering at the expense of the broader community. † porter’s solution is the concept of â€Å"shared value†, which he defines as: creating economic value in a way that also creates value for society by addressing its needs and challenges†¦ He concept of shared value†¦ Recognizes that societal needs, not just conventional economic needs, define markets. It also recognizes that social harms or weaknesses frequently rate internal costs for firms-?such as wasted energy or raw materials, costly accidents, and the need for remedial training t o compensate for inadequacies in education. † 1 A classic example of shared value is a company that should avoid polluting a river because the pollution kills the company’s potential customers down river. If this example does not move you to reconsider the morality of capitalism, other professors at HOBS offered perhaps more persuasive arguments. Rebecca Henderson and Karachi Raman from HOBS produced a paper titled â€Å"Managers and Market Capitalism†. Long overdue, in my opinion, the authors introduce the need for morality in capitalism. The paper argues that businesses have a moral responsibility in addition to Milton Friedman’s economic dictum to maximize shareholder returns. The authors argue that businesses have a moral 18 obligation to serve society by preserving free markets and capitalism and not just satisfy the self-interest of shareholders. Essentially if capitalism and free markets were to end, the shareholders would be harmed by a significant or total loss in the value of their shareholdings. Therefore, egregious behavior, such as the 2007 financial crisis, undermines the integrity of capitalism and ere markets and is therefore immoral. Although the authors did not extend the argument, I believe that they would agree that more socially responsible behavior by corporations fosters more confidence in capitalism and thereby benefits shareholders. Many argue implicitly or explicitly for the need for more social ventures, including social entrepreneurship, due to the lack Of a moral compass in for-profit ventures as a result of the underlying concept of self-interest. I believe that Henderson and Raman present a simple logic that shows for-profit managers a reason for moral behavior-?the reservation of the capitalist system. While it may not meet the standards of the Ten Commandments or other well-known moral systems, preserving the capitalist system does provide the basis to infuse capitalism with an easily understood morality-?act in ways which foster an appreciation and respect for capitalism by society. All but the most die-hard communist should see value in the argument. If not yet convinced about the role Of morality in capitalism, Herbert Simon, the 1978 Nobel Prize winner in economics offers support to introduce morality in capitalism. Simon developed the concept of bounded rationality– sections can only be optimal and never maximized. Bounded rationality offers for-profit managers the 19 â€Å"flexibility† for considerable moral and socially beneficial behaviors to perpetuate the capitalist system. Optimal decisions are by definition a matter of interpretation and not held to the more rigorous standard of minimization. How to cite Scaling Social Entrepreneurship, Papers

Tuesday, April 28, 2020

Treasure Of The Sierra Madre - Movie Review Essays -

Treasure of the Sierra Madre - Movie Review In the movie Treasure of the Sierra Madre, two down and out American ex-patriots in Tampico, Mexico, team up with an old prospector to look for gold. Throughout the movie, these three men are faced with various challenges. They must fight off bandits, try to survive in the wilderness and learn to tolerate and trust each other. The movie opens on the hands of a scraggly looking bum, dirty and scrounging, holding a lottery ticket. This man is later introduced as Dobbs. He is begging for money from richer looking men until he is given some. He takes the money and goes to the barbershop for a shave and a haircut. Dobbs then accepts a job for eight American dollars a day. When the job is finished, he and another guy (the bum that he had met earlier on) are not paid. The younger American, named Curtain asks Dobbs, how much money they had left between them, hoping it was enough to rent a bed somewhere. They find a place that they can afford and when they get there overhear someone talking. The old man, a scruffy toothless gold prospector named Howard is describing the adventurous hunt for gold. Being half drunk and overtired, Dobbs cannot resist taking an interest in the conversation. He, Curtain, and Howard decide to pool their money together for a total of 500 dollars. Howard does not think it is enough to buy tools and such, but it will do. Just then, the little boy that Dobbs bought the lottery ticket from comes in exclaiming that Dobbs has won 200 pesos. This was enough, added to their other money to send them on their trip. They venture on and eventually find gold. What they find, they do not believe is gold, but sand. Only after closely inspecting it, are they sure it is truly genuine. A mysterious man follows Curtain from the village he was sent to for supplies back to their camp. He is introduces as Cody and wonders if he could be a partner. Curtain, Dobbs, and Howard figure that they have three options, send him away, kill him, or make him a partner. They decide send him away is useless and making him a partner is out of the question, death is the only option. Just then bandits attack and end up killing Cody. When looking through his belongings before burying him and find out that he has a wife and a child. They decide that it is time to pack up and leave with the $35,000 that they each have. They say goodbye to the mountain and start their way down. Curtain suggests that they give Cody's widow a partner's fourth and Howard agrees; Dobbs greedily resists. While they are arguing, a group of Indians approaches them in need of help. They mistake Howard as a medicine man and insist he follow them. A boy had fallen into the river and nearly drowned. He was still unconscious and partly in shock. Howard saves the child and goes back to camp. The Indians follow and demand he come back with them so their debts can be repaid. He makes Dobbs and Curtain continue down the mountain. He will catch up in a few days. Dobbs suggests that they take Howard's share of the goods and go north. Curtain being an honest man says he would never do it, not even to Dobbs. Dobbs then draws his gun on Curtain fearing that he will lose his money to his partner. Dobbs is certain that Curtain will murder him in the night and murder him, so he bets him all the gold that he will be able to stay awake longer. When Curtain falls asleep first, Dobbs attacks him and shoots him twice. He then goes to sleep. Meanwhile, an injured Curtain crawls off ending up back at the Indian camp where Howard is. Howard cleans the wounds as curtain explains to him what is going on with Dobbs. Dobbs' conscience gets to him, not wanting to leave Curtain to the vultures and not knowing if he is dead. So he goes back to shoot him again and bury him and realizes that he

Friday, March 20, 2020

Corruption and Poverty

Corruption and Poverty Free Online Research Papers Corruption is both a major cause and a result of poverty around the world. It occurs at all levels of society, from local and national governments, civil society, judiciary functions, large and small businesses, military and other services and so on. Corruption affects the poorest the most, whether in rich or poor nations. The issue of corruption is very much inter-related with other issues. At a global level, the â€Å"international† (Washington Consensus-influenced) economic system that has shaped the current form of globalization in the past decades requires further scrutiny for it has also created conditions whereby corruption can flourish and exacerbate the conditions of people around the world who already have little say about their own destiny. A difficult thing to measure or compare, however, is the impact of corruption on poverty versus the effects of inequalities that are structured into law, such as unequal trade agreements, structural adjustment policies, so-called â€Å"free† trade agreements and so on. It is easier to see corruption. It is harder to see these other more formal, even legal forms of â€Å"corruption.† It is easy to assume that these are not even issues because they are part of the laws and institutions that govern national and international communities and many of us will be accustomed to it- it is how it works, so to speak. Those deeper aspects are discussed in other parts of this web site’s section on trade, economy, related issues. That is not to belittle the issue of corruption, however, for its impacts are enormous too.  «Ã ¢Ã °Ã ºÃ °Ã'  Ã' Ã ¸Ã'‚Ã'Æ'Ð °Ã'†Ð ¸Ã'  Ð ½Ã °Ã'  Ð ºÃ °Ã'‚Ð µÃ ³Ã ¾Ã'€Ð ¸Ã'‡Ð µÃ' Ã ºÃ ¸ Ð ½Ã µ Ã'Æ'Ã' Ã'‚Ã'€Ð °Ã ¸Ã ²Ã °Ã µÃ'‚! КÐ ¾Ã'€Ã'€Ã'Æ'Ð ¿Ã'†Ð ¸Ã'  Ã'Æ'Ð ³Ã'€Ð ¾Ã ¶Ã °Ã µÃ'‚ Ã'€Ð °Ã ·Ã ²Ã ¸Ã'‚Ð ¸Ã'Ž Ð ½Ã °Ã'ˆÐ µÃ ³Ã ¾ Ð ³Ã ¾Ã' Ã'Æ'Ð ´Ã °Ã'€Ã' Ã'‚Ð ²Ã °, Ð µÃ ³Ã ¾ Ã' Ã ºÃ ¾Ã ½Ã ¾Ã ¼Ã ¸Ã'‡Ð µÃ' Ã ºÃ ¾Ã ¼Ã'Æ' Ã'€Ð ¾Ã' Ã'‚Ã'Æ' Ð ¸ Ð ¿Ã ¾Ã »Ã ¸Ã'‚Ð ¸Ã'‡Ð µÃ' Ã ºÃ ¾Ã ¹ Ã' Ã'‚Ð °Ã ±Ã ¸Ã »Ã'Å'Ð ½Ã ¾Ã' Ã'‚Ð ¸. И Ð ¼Ã'‹ Ð ±Ã'Æ'Ð ´Ã µÃ ¼ Ð ²Ã µÃ' Ã'‚Ð ¸ Ã' Ã °Ã ¼Ã'Æ'Ã'Ž Ð ¶Ã µÃ' Ã'‚Ð ºÃ'Æ'Ã'Ž Ð ¸ Ã'€Ð µÃ'ˆÐ ¸Ã'‚Ð µÃ »Ã'Å'Ð ½Ã'Æ'Ã'Ž Ð ±Ã ¾Ã'€Ã'Å'Ð ±Ã'Æ' Ã'  Ð ½Ã µÃ ¹. ПÐ ¾Ã' Ã'‚Ð ¾Ã ¼Ã'Æ' Ã' Ã µÃ ³Ã ¾Ã ´Ã ½Ã'  Ã'  Ð ¾Ã ±Ã'Å Ã' Ã ²Ã »Ã' Ã'Ž Ð ¾ Ã'‚Ð ¾Ã ¼, Ã'‡Ã'‚Ð ¾ Ð ¼Ã'‹ Ð ¿Ã'€Ð ¸Ã ½Ã ¸Ã ¼Ã °Ã µÃ ¼ ОÐ ±Ã'‰Ð µÃ ½Ã °Ã'†Ð ¸Ã ¾Ã ½Ã °Ã »Ã'Å'Ð ½Ã'‹Ð ¹ Ð ¿Ã »Ã °Ã ½ Ð ´Ã µÃ ¹Ã' Ã'‚Ð ²Ã ¸Ã ¹ Ð ¿Ã ¾ Ð ±Ã ¾Ã'€Ã'Å'Ð ±Ã µ Ã'  Ð ºÃ ¾Ã'€Ã'€Ã'Æ'Ð ¿Ã'†Ð ¸Ã µÃ ¹Ã‚ » Ð’Ð µÃ'€Ð ½Ã'Æ'Ð ²Ã'ˆÐ ¸Ã' Ã'Å' Ð º Ð ²Ã ¾Ã ¿Ã'€Ð ¾Ã' Ã °Ã ¼ Ð ¾ Ð ½Ã °Ã ºÃ °Ã ·Ã °Ã ½Ã ¸Ã ¸ Ð ·Ã ° Ð ºÃ ¾Ã'€Ã'€Ã'Æ'Ð ¿Ã'†Ð ¸Ã'Ž, Ð ¿Ã'€Ð µÃ ·Ã ¸Ã ´Ã µÃ ½Ã'‚ Ð ¿Ã'€Ð µÃ ´Ã »Ã ¾Ã ¶Ã ¸Ã » Ã' Ã ¾Ã ·Ã ´Ã °Ã'‚Ã'Å' Ð µÃ ´Ã ¸Ã ½Ã'‹Ð ¹ Ð ¾Ã'€Ð ³Ã °Ã ½ Ð ¿Ã ¾ Ð ²Ã ¾Ã ¿Ã'€Ð ¾Ã' Ã °Ã ¼ Ð ±Ã ¾Ã'€Ã'Å'Ð ±Ã'‹ Ã'  Ã' Ã'‚Ð ¸Ã ¼ Ã' Ã ²Ã »Ã µÃ ½Ã ¸Ã µÃ ¼ Ð ¸ Ð ¿Ã ¾Ã' Ã' Ã ½Ã ¸Ã »:  «Ãâ€™Ã ¾Ã ¿Ã'€Ð ¾Ã' Ã'‹ Ð ±Ã ¾Ã'€Ã'Å'Ð ±Ã'‹ Ã'  Ð ºÃ ¾Ã'€Ã'€Ã'Æ'Ð ¿Ã'†Ð ¸Ã µÃ ¹ Ð ½Ã'Æ'Ð ¶Ã ½Ã ¾ Ã' Ã ¾Ã' Ã'€Ð µÃ ´Ã ¾Ã'‚Ð ¾Ã'‡Ð ¸Ã'‚Ã'Å' Ð ² Ð ¾Ã ´Ã ½Ã ¾Ã ¼ Ð ¾Ã'€Ð ³Ã °Ã ½Ã µ. Ð £ Ð ½Ã °Ã'  Ã' Ã'‚Ð ¸Ã ¼ Ð ·Ã °Ã ½Ã ¸Ã ¼Ã °Ã µÃ'‚Ã' Ã'  Ð °Ã ³Ã µÃ ½Ã'‚Ã' Ã'‚Ð ²Ã ¾ Ð ¿Ã ¾ Ð ±Ã ¾Ã'€Ã'Å'Ð ±Ã µ Ã'  Ð ºÃ ¾Ã'€Ã'€Ã'Æ'Ð ¿Ã'†Ð ¸Ã µÃ ¹, КÐ ¾Ã ¼Ã ¸Ã'‚Ð µÃ'‚ Ð ½Ã °Ã'†Ð ¸Ã ¾Ã ½Ã °Ã »Ã'Å'Ð ½Ã ¾Ã ¹ Ð ±Ã µÃ ·Ã ¾Ã ¿Ã °Ã' Ã ½Ã ¾Ã' Ã'‚Ð ¸, Ð ½Ã °Ã »Ã ¾Ã ³Ã ¾Ã ²Ã'‹Ð µ Ã' Ã »Ã'Æ'Ð ¶Ã ±Ã'‹. Ð Ã µ Ð ¿Ã ¾Ã ¹Ã ¼Ã µÃ'ˆÃ'Å', Ã'  Ð ºÃ ¾Ã ³Ã ¾ Ã' Ã ¿Ã'€Ð °Ã'ˆÐ ¸Ã ²Ã °Ã'‚Ã'Å' ». one would expect that corruption is more likely to take place when civil servants are paid very low wages and often must resort to collecting bribes in order to feed their families. Research Papers on Corruption and PovertyPETSTEL analysis of IndiaQuebec and CanadaDefinition of Export Quotas19 Century Society: A Deeply Divided EraRelationship between Media Coverage and Social andTwilight of the UAWAssess the importance of Nationalism 1815-1850 EuropeInfluences of Socio-Economic Status of Married MalesThe Effects of Illegal ImmigrationThe Project Managment Office System

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

Lake Superior State University Admissions

Lake Superior State University Admissions Lake Superior State University Admissions Overview: The majority of applicants interested in Lake Superior State University are admitted each year. With an acceptance rate of 91%, most students with grades and standardized test scores that are average or better will get in. To apply, visit the schools website for application instructions and important deadlines.   Admissions Data (2016): Lake Superior State University Acceptance Rate: 91%Test Scores 25th / 75th PercentileSAT Critical Reading: 430 / 540SAT Math: 430  / 520SAT Writing: - / -What these SAT numbers meanMichigan public university SAT score comparisonACT Composite: 20  / 25ACT English: 19 / 26ACT Math: 18 / 25ACT Writing: - / -What these ACT numbers meanMichigan public university ACT score comparison Lake Superior State University Description: Lake Superior State University is one of  Michigans 15 public universities; its campus is located in Sault Ste Marie on the site of the former U.S. Armys Fort Brady. It is on the smaller side, with just over 2,500 students, a student/faulty ratio of 15  to 1, and an average class size of fewer than 30 students. LSSU offers a long list of academic programs from its five colleges and schools: the College of Arts, Letters, Social Sciences and Emergency Services; the College of Business and Engineering; the College of Natural and Mathematical Sciences; the College of Nursing and Health Sciences; and the School of Education. The university is one of only three in the country to offer a fire science program. With more than 60 student clubs and organizations as well as intramural sports, there is plenty to do on campus. LSSU is a member of the NCAA Division II  Great Lakes Intercollegiate Athletic Conference  (GLIAC), but the universitys ice hockey team competes in the NCAA Division I Central Collegiate Hockey Association (CCHA) and has won five national championships. Enrollment (2016): Total Enrollment: 2,099  (all undergraduates)Gender Breakdown: 49% Male / 51% Female86% Full-time Costs (2016- 17): Tuition and Fees: $11,019  (in-state)Books: $1,100 (why so much?)Room and Board: $9,442Other Expenses: $1,600Total Cost: $22,161   Lake Superior State University Financial Aid (2015- 16): Percentage of New Students Receiving Aid: 96%Percentage of New Students Receiving Types of AidGrants: 86%Loans: 59%Average Amount of AidGrants: $9,830Loans: $6,167 Academic Programs: Most Popular Majors:  Accounting, Business Administration, Criminal Justice, Elementary Education, Exercise Science, Fire Science, Fisheries and Wildlife Management, Nursing Transfer, Graduation and Retention Rates: First Year Student Retention (full-time students): 72%Transfer-out Rate: 5%4-Year Graduation Rate: 21%6-Year Graduation Rate: 42% Intercollegiate Athletic Programs: Mens Sports:  Ice Hockey, Cross Country, Tennis, Track and Field, Basketball, GolfWomens Sports:  Basketball, Volleyball, Tennis, Track and Field, Softball, Golf, Cross Country Data Source: National Center for Educational Statistics If You Like Lake Superior State University, You May Also Like These Schools: Oakland University: Profile  Northern Michigan University: Profile  Albion College: Profile | GPA-SAT-ACT GraphFinlandia University: Profile  Spring Arbor University: Profile  Eastern Michigan University: Profile  University of Michigan - Ann Arbor: Profile | GPA-SAT-ACT GraphAlma College: Profile  Ferris State University: Profile  Central Michigan University: Profile | GPA-SAT-ACT GraphGrand Valley State University: Profile | GPA-SAT-ACT GraphAlbion College: Profile | GPA-SAT-ACT Graph

Sunday, February 16, 2020

Write plan addressing principal's directives Essay

Write plan addressing principal's directives - Essay Example The responsibilities every affiliate of the family has. I will require from each student an essay on how their family celebrates holidays like, thanksgiving and birthdays. In so doing students get to be grateful for the value of family, and gain invaluable knowledge that is practical and they can put it on paper in case of an assessment test on the subject. My teaching methodology of family history, growth and change, will slightly be off tangent. Each student will be required to research on their family’s history and note down an essay. In the family’s history, I expect them to identify their family heritage and the changes their family has encountered over time. I expect some of my students to contribute their family tales, songs, dances and even legends; this will make the unit highly practical. They will do this in groups, whereby one student volunteers to share a folktale while the classmates will ask relevant questions. The aim is to have students share information freely and respect each other. The concept of communities can be introduced by getting the students appreciate the variety of their communities. They get to know their cultural uniqueness, religious difference, ethnicity and school is what makes them unique. In this unit, I will task my students to try and locate the country, state and country on a map. They should list down geographical features, natural resources, artificial resources and significant symbols that identify their community. Their task will be to try and locate the school from the global perspective, give the cardinal directions, and how the school affects the environment. The last unit will have students getting to know how people satisfy their wants and citizenship. Students ought to know what their parents do for a living to provide for them. They will discuss in groups the types of occupation people carry out. The issues of trade and exchange, science and

Sunday, February 2, 2020

Principles of Information Systems in Business and Organizations Essay

Principles of Information Systems in Business and Organizations - Essay Example Using this Zoho writer one can publish items directly to a blog and can save and import a range of text document formats, from Microsoft Word to HTML. One can import a document from one's computer or from any other web-page. But it raises a question, why should one import a file rather than accessing it on his own computer! There is no need to register in this website. One can easily access this website from anywhere by using his/her google e-mail id. The other main disadvantage noticed here is that, not two or more applications are made available in one page. In comparison, Google Docs (http://docs.google.com/), a well designed online application that helps user to prepare a Document, Spreadsheet, Presentation and Form. Also, the work done can be shared by others to get online reviews. The application is found to be highly professional with all the basic tools and functionalities available in a stand-alone word processing application. Also, as four applications are made available in one browser page, people tend to use google docs than any other application. The main features of this application is one can allow the list of persons who can access their documents.

Saturday, January 25, 2020

Discipline-Based Art Education Curriculum

Discipline-Based Art Education Curriculum The discipline-based art education program relies on several different curriculum theories. At times, the theories overlap and contradict each other, which is a reason why the DBAE has endured much criticism, as well as praise since its inception. The focus of this paper is to connect the theories to the four disciplines of DBAE by using the readings from EDU-707, Curriculum Theory, and Research. Introduction The aims of the discipline-based art education are to provide art educators with a curriculum that is equal in vigor as the core curriculum subjects. Noddings (2003) would conclude that the DBAE curriculum, which parallels with core subjects, is rationalized through planned objectives and goals. Constructing a school curriculum, or a set of courses, must begin with a purpose or at least knowing the answer to why is this important to teach and learn? Eisner (1967) states, if one is to build curriculum in a rational way, the clarity of premise, end or starting point, would appear paramount (p. 250). In the early 1900s, school curriculum was questioned and mainly because of the changes that were taking place in society. There was a tremendous growth in popular journalism, the rapid advancement of railroads, and the migration of people from a predominately rural base moving into more urban locations (Kliebard, 2004). The industrial revolution was replacing the farm-based way of life and students needed a different type of education to help society in the future. The purpose of education is summed up neatly by Bobbitt who states, [Education is] the function of training every citizen, man or woman, not for knowledge about citizenship, but for proficiency in citizenship (Flinders Thornton, 2004a, p. 11). Additionally, Eisner (2001), DBAE founder and Stanford University Professor of Education and Art, offers, the function of schooling is not to enable students to do better in school. The function of schooling is to enable students to do better in life (p. 369). The DBAE curriculum is shaped by connecting different and at times conflicting beliefs. Few can argue that the main purpose of DBAE is to offer teachers a theoretical framework for learning and teaching the arts (Patchen, 1996). However, the foundations of DBAE have been under constant scrutiny since its inception. The criticism focused around being too prescriptive, eliminating individual creativity, and not representing all cultures. The differing analysis from academic experts is likely because the arts require a novel or creative response. Therefore, developing the particular behaviors needed for students to be successful it is hard to identify (Eisner). Another factor in the construction of the DBAE is how the world viewed art education in the 1960s. During prior decades art was influenced by national and political issues reflecting on post-war thinking. The approach was a belief of independence and democratic personality, which shaped art activities (Freedman, 1987). Therefore, the DBAE creators found a necessity for a disciplined approach. By definition, the term discipline means a field of study, as well as gaining control by enforcing the order. Both descriptions of discipline imply a set of parameters. Setting restrictions on instruction is designed to help teachers uniformly teach art education, which includes a responsibility of providing foundational knowledge. Art teaching in DBAE focuses on four disciplines: art production, art history, art criticism, and art aesthetics. Art Production Art production is students learning skills and techniques to produce personal, original artwork. This change signifies a different model from one of creative self-expression which had controlled art education throughout the previous decades and one in which Greene (1995) would contend that to be yourself is to be in process of creating a self, an identity (p. 20). Greene is certainly an advocate for individualism, creativity, and an awareness of oneself. However, the creators of the DBAE saw creativity through the lens of an essentialist. The orientation of an essentialist classroom should revolve around the teacher. The teacher should also be the model to which students should try to emulate. If the teacher is the focus of an essentialist classroom, Counts (Flinders Thornton, 2004c) believes that they should take the next step and reach for the power and help construct the curriculum. The DBAE founders value the art product by using known exemplary works of art and treat art as a p rocess moving from the outside inward. The founders contend that students view aspects of the exemplary as a process of discovery about responding, understanding, and thus creating. There is a flaw in this methodology because which of the many different societies have excellent pieces of art for students to follow? Kliebard (2004) suggests that what a society values and incorporates it into the curriculum is tough because it cannot take into account the different segments of society and what they feel is worthy of study. The emphasis of DBAE art production is for students to create art physically. The problem for teachers lies with assessing students levels of achievement in their art creation. Eisner (2001) proposes that creating standards and the measures of performance help teachers and school administrators to be accountable. Dweck (2000) offers that there are two different types of goals to assess; one is a performance goal or how well students completed the assignment and the second is a learning goal, which assesses what the student learned while creating. In an ideal setting, educators should strive to evaluate both performance and learning goals. An assessable performance goal in a DBAE classroom is the students demonstration of proper techniques used in the exemplary pieces to create a new work of art. Because art instruction uses exemplary work, teachers can assess the performance of a student who is developing intuition and reasoning behind why a piece is considered exemplary. Assessing a learning goal is more difficult because of individual experiences. Sumara and Davis (1999) suggest learning is an act of (re) cognition, meaning that people who see things for the first time helps them make meaning to what they already know. Conversely, Greene (1995) offers that students have to develop their imagination for learning to take place. Depending on a students previous experiences, an art teacher using the DBAE approach would need to create individualized rubrics to assess learning. Furthermore, a student self-reflection would be of great benefit to the assessment process. Art History Art history is studying the artistic accomplishments based on culture and history. Students educated through DBAE instruction begin with observing exemplars. The choices of exemplars have received the most criticisms because of the lack of representation in different societies, gender, and minorities. The section of curriculum devoted to art history has roots with Perennialism qualities. From a Perennialist perspective the exemplars are mainly chosen from Western European artists; predominately individuals who are white and male. The program meritoriously excluded other genres and narrowed students ability to think critically by telling them the exemplars were the only necessary or worthy pieces of work to study. Taliaferro Basziles (2008) statement regarding the lack of diversity is powerful as she writes, Cartesian rationality, which à ¯Ã‚ ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å¡attens out the role ones racial history plays in considering a rational line of thought (p. 381). What she is offering is without diver sity and representation of multiple the points of view, the consumer is knowledge is incomplete, and they forced to take the perspective provided. In effect the lack of representation oppresses, even eliminates many cultures and genders from history. bell hooks (Darder, Baltodano, Torres, 2009) reminds us of the importance of hearing each others voices, individual thoughts, and sometimes associating these voices with personal experience makes us more acutely aware of each other (p.138). Unfortunately, the designers of the DBAE rely heavily on the great works specifically within Western European art history, in essence taking the status quo route of it was good for previous generations, so it must be good for the next generation. The Perennialist teacher is supposed to focus on personal development, but it appears that the art history framers of the DBAE approach are interested in developing one point of view, one level of emotion, and providing one genre of great work. Wang (2008) would argue this narrow focus further perpetuates the social hierarchy that exists in a predominantly privileged white society. She would advocate for a teacher to use caution, but to introduce other great works by minorities, females, and other marginalized individuals to provide students with a broader intellect. Additionally, if we look at Freires idea of an educational banking system, the DBAE is in full compliance. Freire (2003) describes the banking concept as education that regards men as adaptable, manageable beings (p.73). The use of exemplars, solely based on one society, provides students with the knowledge they may or may not need or use. The teacher deposits the notion that exemplary x IS a piece of great work and the student accepts and memorizes it and later regurgitates it back to the teacher. There is a complete lack of variety and opinions given toward the exemplars. Freire (2003) believes the students have to work at storing the deposits delivered to them not to d evelop an awareness which may result in transforming the opinion. Certainly, the teacher engages students in a dialogue, but the conversation revolves around what the teacher believes is important and offers no other alternatives. The criticism of the art history strand using the DBAE approach is justified. The lack of women, people of color, and modern artists exemplars gives students a disproportionate view of art history. The heteronormative thinking of art history in DBAE, as Sumara and Davis (1999) remind us, does not broaden a viewers perception or increase their understanding of what makes a piece of work worthy of being an exemplary. Students need to be able to develop various frameworks; this could occur through the study of designated, restricted art examples. Maybe even more than the advancement of multiple lenses, students need the capability to be instinctive regarding artistic choices and develop relations among those choices to help shape his or her reality. Art Criticism The goal of art criticism is to be able to interpret and evaluate for the purpose of understanding and appreciating works of art. To be able to interpret and assess art, students must be able to experience and process the art; additionally, teachers need to place a high level of importance on student perception and decision making. Therefore, art criticism relies on Existentialist and Constructionist theories. An existentialist teacher encourages student responses and desires student self-awareness, and hooks (Darder, Baltodano, Torres, 2009) reflects these traits when she describes her classroom as a place where everyone has a voice and students continually practice self-awareness to reinforce their position on a topic. Baszile (2008) offers that literature suggests reflection is a racially neutral practice. However, she would strongly disagree because of her experiences while attending a predominately White campus for preservice teachers. Her reflection experiences demonstrate a d ismissal of race and background, which left a void in her growth process. As a DBAE teacher, it is imperative that their voice and reflection be neutral to encourage honest and open dialogue between the students. The more students review and discuss art the more they build their knowledge base to think critically about art. Largely based on interest and critical thinking, it is the DBAE teachers responsibility to foster an environment where students can question ideas and have the flexibility ability to develop competencies in areas that interest them. Doll (1993) uses the term recursion to describe developing competence through reflective practices and building upon previous knowledge, in essence, he is suggesting that students are critically thinking. Dewey is an advocate for building on prior learning which involves experiential, hands-on learning. He would appreciate students in a DBAE classroom would have ample opportunities to connect art to other subjects during their experimentation and analysis. Dewey offers that school departmentalizes subjects and nothing could be worse for students as they quickly pass from one subject to the next, often with no conscious isolation. For students t o effectively interpret and analyze art, they have to be able to draw from many experiences. The experiences must repeatedly occur, because the childs present experience is in no way self-explanatory. It is not final, but transitional (Dewey, p. 279). Greene (1995) calls the experiences bringing the unknown to consciousness, which can provide pure enjoyment for students. Students who revel in the learning process are far more likely to find success with Blooms upper levels of critical thinking skills of creating, analyzing, and evaluating art. Art Aesthetics Art aesthetics is defining, making judgments, and exploring the relationships between art and ideology and morality. The existential properties of students working toward finding personal meaning and value in art is a basic foundation of art aesthetics. Students are responsible for determining if the art is beautiful or ugly and if the art is an accurate or poor example of the period it was intended to represent. Doll (1993) proposes that thoughts on thoughts is the way we make meaning. He continues by suggesting for one to have a sense of self they must interact with the environment, with others, and with culture. Addams (Flinders Thornton, 2004b) defines culture as things that are passed through generations and have value and meaning. For a student to appreciate and be able to provide an appropriate aesthetic point of view they have to develop a deep understanding of themselves and their culture. Students who have not developed the skills can often base their opinions on preconcep tions and biases when they are engaging in objective criticism of art. According to hooks (Darder, Baltodano, Torres, 2009), biases shape the way knowledge is given and received. An incorrect belief on a piece of art does not help a student achieve an understanding of a culture or how that culture fits within the world. Furthermore, ideas based on falsehoods often transfer to next generations that further perpetuate the bias and the need for future correction. The preservation of untruths can be dangerous because as Baszile (2008) offers the false self-system works from within and often convinces people that it is normal or fact. In the world of art, DBAE teachers have a responsibility to their students to help them understand falsehoods and how to break the cycle of biases and ignorance. In essence, DBAE teachers are Social Reconstructionists in that they are contributing to reshaping society by providing students with necessary skills to make qualified judgments and finding relationships between the art world and real world. Counts (Flinders Thornton, 2004c) states that if teachers could locate the courage, intelligence, and vision, they could become societal change-makers. At the very least, teachers touch the future each day and have the ability to help students view culture and society in different ways. Counts is adamant about teachers making a stand, making a difference. His statement, If the schools are to be really effective, they must become centers for the building, and not merely for the contemplation (Flinders Thornton, p. 32) should resonate with DBAE teachers. As their students find new relat ionships between art and society, and art and their thinking, they are also building a capacity for intellect and appreciation of different cultures. Freire (2003) saw teaching and learning as a method of examination in which the child conceives and reinvents the world. Furthermore, he stresses education consists in acts of cognition, not transferals of information (p. 79), which is precisely what DBAE art aesthetics strand aims to achieve. Conclusion Viewing discipline-based art education from the perspective of different curriculum theories offers the reader a chance to make connections to what and why the founding writers of the DBAE saw to be important. The origins of the DBAE stem from previous decades of art instruction being a break for regular classroom teachers, and an arts and craft slice of the students educational day. By creating an art curriculum that includes rigorous standards, art education benefits art instructors by focusing their efforts, and more importantly all students because of the critical thinking. While there are still flaws within the DBAE approach, the successes require schools to provide the necessary, valuable time for art instruction and learning in mainstream education. References Baszile, D. T. (2008). The oppressor within: A counterstory of race, repression, and teacher reflection. Urban Rev, 40, 371-385. doi:10.1007/s11256-008-0090-1 Darder, A., Baltodano, M., Torres, R. (2009). 7 Confronting Class in the Classroom. In The critical pedagogy reader bell hooks (2nd ed.). New York and London: Routledge. Dewey, J. (1976). The Middle Works, 1899-1924. In The child and the curriculum. London and Amsterdam: Southern Illinois University Press. Doll, W. E. (1993). A post-modern perspective on curriculum. New York and London: Teachers College, Columbia University. Dweck, C. S. (2000). 3 Achievement Goals: Looking Smart Versus Learning. In Self-theories and goals: Their role in motivation, personality, and development. New York and London: Psychology Press. Eisner, E. W. (1967). Help or hindrance? The School Review, 75(3), 250-260. Eisner, E. W. (2001). What does it mean to say a school is doing well? The Phi Delta Kappan, 82(5), 367-372. Flinders, D. J., Thornton, S. J. (2004a). 1 Scientific Method in Curriculum-Making by Franklin Bobbitt. In The curriculum studies reader (2nd ed.). New York and London: RoutledgeFalmer. Flinders, D. J., Thornton, S. J. (2004b). 3 The Public School and the Child Immigrant by Jane Addams. In The curriculum studies reader (2nd ed.). New York and London: RoutledgeFalmer. Flinders, D. J., Thornton, S. J. (2004c). 4 Dare the School Build a New Social Order by George S. Counts. In The curriculum studies reader (2nd ed.). New York and London: RoutledgeFalmer. Freedman, K. (1987). Art education and changing political agendas: An analysis of curriculum concerns of the 1940s and 1950s. Studies in Art Education, 29(1), 17-29. Freire, P. (2003). 2. In Pedagogy of the oppressed (30th Anniversary ed.). New York and London: Continuum International Publishing Group Inc. Greene, M. (1995). 2 Imagination, Breakthroughs, and the Unexpected. In Releasing the imagination: Essays on education, the arts, and social change. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Kliebard, H. M. (2004). 1 Curriculum Ferment in the 1890s. In The struggle for the American curriculum, 1893-1958 (3rd ed.). New York and London: RoutledgeFalmer. Noddings, N. (2003). 4 The Aims of Education. In Happiness and education. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Patchen, J. (1996). Overview of discipline based music education. Music Educators Journal, 83(2), 19-27. Sumara, D., Davis, B. (1999). Interrupting heteronormativity: Toward a queer curriculum theory. Curriculum Theory, 29(2), 191-208. Wang, H. (2008). Red eyes: Engaging emotions in multicultural education. Multicultural Perspectives, 10(1), 10-16. doi:10.1080/15210960701869330

Friday, January 17, 2020

Biodiesel Business Financial Plan

l pabiodiesel financial plan Start-up Expenses| Â  | Land to buy| Â  | Office to buy| Â  | Renovation expenses| Â  | Design works| $10 000 | Assembly operations| $200 000 | Placing into operation| $53 000 | Oil processing equipment (incl. storage and loading)| $100 000 | Seed storage equipment (incl. installation)| $350 000 | Glycerol purification equipment (including installation)| $0 000 | Tanks| $100 000 | Biodiesel production equipment (incl. delivery and installation )| $250 000 | Utility network| $000 |Advertising/Promotion| $5 000 | Land leasing| $0 | Raw materials (1 quarter of operations)| $660 000 | Salaries| $353 000 | Biodiesel production costs (chemicals, utilities, maintenance for 1 quarter) | $84 000 | Rent | $0 | Total Start-up Expenses| $000 | | Â  | Start-up Assets Needed| Â  | Cash Balance on Starting Date| Â  | Start-up Inventory| $0 | Other Current Assets| $0 | Total Current Assets| $0 | Long-term Assets| $0 | Total Assets| $0 | Total Requirements| $3 095 000 | Sales Forecast|Sales| 2007| Â  | 2008| Â  | 2009| Â  | 2010| Â  | 2011| Â  | Price per ton| Sum| Price per ton| Sum| Price per ton| Sum| Price per ton| Sum| Price per ton| Sum| Biodiesel| Â  | $2 800 000 | $700 | Â  | Â  | $2 800 000 | Â  | $2 800 000 | $700 | $ | Glycerol| Â  | $280 000 | $700 | $280 000 | $700 | $280 000 | Â  | $280 000 | $0 | $280 000 | Seeds| Â  | $0 | $220 | Â  | $220 | $0 | Â  | $0 | $220 | $0 | Press cake| $180 | $1 440 000 | $180 | $1 440 000 | $180 | $1 440 000 | $180 | $1 440 000 | $180 | $1 440 000 | Total Sales| Â  | $4 520 000 | Â  | $4 520 000 | Â  | $4 520 000 | Â  | $4 520 000 | Â  | $4 520 000 | Â  | Â  | Â  | Â  | Â  | Â  | Â  | Â  | Â  | Â  | Â  |Direct Cost of Sales| Â  | 2006| Â  | 2007| Â  | 2008| Â  | 2009| Â  | 2010| Seeds| $220 | $2 640 000 | $220 | Â  | $220 | $2 640 000 | $220 | Â  | Â  | Â  | Oil| $600 | $0 | $600 | $0 | $600 | $0 | $600 | $0 | 600 | $0 | Subtotal Direct Cost of Sales| Â  | $2 640 000 | Â  | $2 640 000 | Â  | $2 640 000 | Â  | $2 640 000 | Â  | $2 640 000 | Sales and costs in tons| Â  | Â  | Â  | Â  | Â  | Â  | Â  | Â  | Â  | Â  | Biodiesel| Â  | Â  | Â  | Â  | Â  | Â  | Â  | Â  | Â  | Â  | Glycerol| $700 | 400| $700 | 400| $700 | 400| $700 | 400| $700 | 400| Seeds from own farm| $220 | Â  | $220 | Â  | $220 | Â  | $220 | Â  | $220 | Â  | Press cake| $180 | Â  | $180 | 8 000| $180 | 8 000| $180 | 8 000| $180 | 8 000| Total sales, ton| Â  | Â  | Â  | 12 400| Â  | 12 400| Â  | 12 400| Â  | 12 400| Procurement of raw materials| Â  | Â  | Â  | Â  | Â  | Â  | 0| Â  | 0| Â  | Seeds| $220 | 12 000| $220 | 12 000| $220 | Â  | $220 | 12 000| $220 | 12 000| Oil| $600 | Â  | $600 | Â  | $600 | Â  | $600 | Â  | $600 | Â  | Total, raw materials, ton| Â  | Â  | Â  | 12 000| Â  | Â  | Â  | 12 000| Â  | 12 000| Personnel Plan| Daily wage| 2007| 2008| 2009| 2010| 2011| Director general| $100 | $24 000 | $24 000 | $ 24 000 | $24 000 | $24 000 | Production and procurement director| Â  | Â  | $24 000 | $24 000 | $24 000 | Â  | Farm supervisor| Â  | Â  | $24 000 | $24 000 | $24 000 | Â  | Sales manager| Â  | Â  | Â  | Â  | Â  | Â  | Controller| Â  | Â  | Â  | Â  | Â  | Â  | Chief Technologist| $80 | Â  | $19 200 | $19 200 | Â  | Â  | Secretary| $56 | Â  | $13 440 | $13 440 | Â  | Â  | Operators, production, 5 employees | $56 | $67 200 | $67 200 | $67 200 $67 200 | Â  | Laboratory technician, 1 employee | Â  | $13 440 | $13 440 | $13 440 | $13 440 | $13 440 | Farming, 5 employee| Â  | $67 200 | Â  | $67 200 | $67 200 | $67 200 | Drivers, 2 employee| $56 | $26 880 | Â  | $26 880 | $26 880 | $26 880 | Electrical fitter| $56 | $13 440 | Â  | $13 440 | $13 440 | $13 440 | Storeman, 2 employee| $56 | $26 880 | $26 880 | $26 880 | $26 880 | $26 880 | Total Payroll| Â  | $353 000 | $353 000 | $353 000 | $353 000 | $353 000 | Production headcount| Â  | 5| 5| 5| 5| 5| ROI Ana lysis| 2007| 2008| 2009| 2010| 2011| Sales| $4 520 000 | $4 520 000 | $4 520 000 | $4 520 000 | $4 520 000 | Cost of Sales| Â  | Â  | $3 326 000 | $3 326 000 | $3 326 000 | Gross Margin| $1 186 000 | $1 194 000 | $1 194 000 | $1 194 000 | $1 194 000 | Gross Margin %| 26. 24%| 26. 42%| 26. 42%| 26. 42%| 26. 2%| Operating Expenses| $434 667 | $101 667 | $101 667 | $101 667 | $121 667 | Operating Income| $751 333 | Â  | Â  | $1 092 333 | $1 072 333 | Net Income| $470 283 | Â  | Â  | $708 983 | $750 633 | Net Income to investor| $244 639 | $368 809 | $368 809 | Â  | Â  | Current Assets| $3 029 283 | $3 804 933 | $4 339 917 | $5 115 567 | $5 137 867 | Long-term Assets| $843 333 | $776 667 | $710 000 | $643 333 | $576 667 | Long-term Liabilities| $795 000 | $795 000 | $795 000 | $795 000 | $0 | Equity| $3 077 617 | $3 786 600 | $4 254 917 | $4 963 900 | $5 714 533 | ROE| 0. 15| 0. 19| 0. 17| 0. 14| 0. 13| ROI| 0. 11| 0. 16| 0. 16| 0. 16| 0. 17| Shares offered to investor| 52. 2%| Â  | Â  | Â  | Â  | Investor financing| 74. 31%| Â  | Â  | Â  | Â  | Loan financing| 25. 69%| Â  | Â  | Â  | Â  | Pro Forma Profit and Loss| | 2007| 2008| 2009| 2010| 2011| Sales| $4 520 000 | $4 520 000 | $4 520 000 | $4 520 000 | $4 520 000 | Cost of raw materials| $2 640 000 | Â  | Â  | $2 640 000 | $2 640 000 | Farm maintenance (fuel, fertilizer, etc)| $5 000 | $5 000 | $5 000 | $5 000 | $5 000 | Production Payroll| $353 000 | $353 000 | $353 000 | $353 000 | $353 000 | Methanol| Â  | Â  | Â  | Â  | Â  | Potassium hydroxide| $8 000 | $8 000 | $8 000 | Â  | $8 000 | Utilities| $80 000 | $80 000 | $80 000 | Â  | $80 000 | Equipment Maintenance| $8 000 | $0 | $0 | Â  | $0 |Cost of Goods Sold| $3 334 000 | $3 326 000 | $3 326 000 | $3 326 000 | $3 326 000 | Gross Margin| $1 186 000 | $1 194 000 | $1 194 000 | $1 194 000 | $1 194 000 | Gross Margin %| 26. 24%| 26. 42%| 26. 42%| 26. 42%| 26. 42%| Other Expenses: | Â  | Â  | Â  | Â  | Â  | Design works| $10 0 00 | $0 | Â  | $0 | $0 | Renovation expenses| $100 000 | Â  | Â  | Â  | $20 000 | Assembly operations| Â  | Â  | $10 000 | $10 000 | $10 000 | Placing into operation| $53 000 | $5 000 | $5 000 | $5 000 | $5 000 | Advertising/Promotion| $5 000 | $20 000 | $20 000 | $20 000 | $20 000 | Depreciation (service life 12 years)| $66 667 | $66 667 | $66 667 | $66 667 | $66 667 | Land leasing| $0 | $0 | $0 | $0 | $0 | Rent| $0 | $0 | $0 | $0 | $0 |Total Other expenses| $434 667 | $101 667 | $101 667 | $101 667 | $121 667 | Profit Before Interest and Taxes| $751 333 | $1 092 333 | $1 092 333 | $1 092 333 | $1 072 333 | Interest Expense| $79 500 | $79 500 | $79 500 | $79 500 | $0 | Taxes Incurred| $201 550 | $303 850 | $303 850 | $303 850 | $321 700 | Other Expense| Â  | Â  | Â  | Â  | Â  | Net Profit| Â  | Â  | $708 983 | $708 983 | $750 633 | Net Profit/Sales| 10. 40%| 15. 69%| 15. 69%| 15. 69%| 16. 61%| Pro Forma Cash Flow| 2007| 2008| 2009| 2010| 2011| Cash from Operations: | à ‚  | Â  | Â  | Â  | Â  | Cash Sales| $3 164 000 | $3 164 000 | Â  | Â  | Â  | Cash from Receivables| $1 356 000 | $1 356 000 | $1 356 000 | $1 356 000 | $1 356 000 | Subtotal Cash from Operations| Â  | Â  | Â  | Â  | $4 520 000 | Additional Cash Received| Â  | Â  | Â  | Â  | Â  | Sales Tax, VAT, HST/GST Received| $0 | $0 | $0 | $0 | $0 | Loan| $795 000 | $0 | $0 | $0 | $0 |New Investment Received| $2 300 000 | $0 | $0 | $0 | $0 | Subtotal Cash Received| $7 615 000 | $4 520 000 | $4 520 000 | $4 520 000 | $4 520 000 | Â  | Â  | Â  | Â  | Â  | Â  | Expenditures| 2007| 2008| 2009| 2010| 2010| Expenditures from Operations:| Â  | Â  | Â  | Â  | Â  | Salaries| Â  | Â  | Â  | Â  | $353 000 | Payment of Accounts Payable| Â  | Â  | Â  | Â  | $2 973 000 | Subtotal Spent on Operations| $3 334 000 | $3 326 000 | $3 326 000 | $3 326 000 | $3 326 000 | Â  | Â  | Â  | Â  | Â  | Â  | Additional Cash Spent| Â  | Â  | Â  | Â  | Â  | Sales Tax Paid Out| Â  | Â  | Â  | Â  | $321 700 | Principal Repayment (loan)| Â  | Â  | Â  | Â  | $795 000 | Design works| $10 000 | $0 | $0 | $0 | Â  | Renovation expenses| Â  | Â  | $0 | $0 | Â  | Assembly operations| Â  | Â  | $10 000 | $10 000 | Â  |Placing into operation| $53 000 | $5 000 | $5 000 | Â  | Â  | Advertising/Promotion| $5 000 | $20 000 | $20 000 | $20 000 | $20 000 | Land leasing| $0 | $0 | $0 | $0 | $0 | Rent| $0 | $0 | $0 | $0 | $0 | Interest Expense| $79 500 | $79 500 | $79 500 | $79 500 | $0 | Purchase Long-term Assets| Â  | Â  | Â  | $0 | $0 | Subtotal Cash Spent| Â  | Â  | Â  | $3 744 350 | $4 497 700 | Â  | Â  | Â  | Â  | Â  | Â  | Net Cash Flow| $2 788 617 | $842 317 | $842 317 | 317 | $88 967 | Cash Balance| $2 788 617 | $3 564 267 | $4 339 917 | $5 115 567 | $5 137 867 | Annual Break-even, Tons| 961. 34| 961. 34| 961. 34| 961. 34| Assumptions:| Â  | Â  | Â  | Â  | Average Per Tone Revenue| Â  | Â  | $1 130. 00 | $1 130. 00 | Average Per Tone Variable Cost| $742. 00 | $742. 00 | $742. 00 | $742. 00 | Estimated Annual Fixed Cost| Â  | Â  | $373 000 | $373 000 |

Thursday, January 9, 2020

Physical Therapy, Pt, And Occupational Therapy - 966 Words

Physical therapy, PT, and occupational therapy, OT, are two careers that help people heal and rehabilitate. PTs and OTs may seem similar at a glance, but they have just as many differences. The job descriptions and history vary, but the salary, requirements, and goals are fairly alike. They both take much skill and expertise, and few people actually understand the difference between the two. Therapy is the treatment of disease or disability through rehabilitation processes. Both physical and occupational therapists treat patients who have injuries or disabilities. A physical therapist treats patients with specifically physical disabilities. They help patients recuperate from pain and injuries, and they are also a huge part of the rehab process after a surgery. WISCareers states that they design treatment programs, teach patients how to do certain exercises, and demonstrate how to use assistive devices (WISCareers Physical). The goal of physical therapy is to help the patient become as independent as possible in their daily activities. PTs play a vital role in treating patients with acquired or inborn disabilities, injuries from playing a sport, or post-surgery pain or weakness. Similarly, occupational therapy oversees rehabilitation and healing physically, however, it encompasses treatment of cognitive disabilities as well. An OT’s goal is to help patients live independently, despite disorders, special needs, or diseases. An article on WISCareers says thatShow MoreRelatedPhysical Therapy ( Pt ) And Occupational Therapy969 Words   |  4 PagesPhysical therapy (PT) and occupational therapy (OT) are two careers that help people heal and rehabilitate. PTs and OTs may seem similar at a glance, but they have just as many differences. The job descriptions and history vary, but the salary, and requirements are fairly alike. 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The average of all occupations is 11%; According to The Bureau of Labor Statistics, Physical Therapy’s projected job outlook in the years 2012-2022 is projected to triple 36%. (Summary Occupational Outlook Handbook) .There are many specialty area s in the field of Physical Therapy butRead MoreThe Role Of Sociocultural, Socioeconomic, And Diversity Factors1414 Words   |  6 Pageslife, well-being, and occupation of the individual, group, or population to promote physical and mental health and prevention of injury and disease considering the context. (ACOTA Standard B.2.9) Effectively locate and understand information including the quality of the source of information. (ACOTE Standard B.8.2) Use professional literature to make evidence base practice decision in collaboration with the occupational therapist. (ACOTE Standard B.8.3) Demonstrate the skills to read and understand aRead MoreOccupational Therapy : What Puts It Above The Rest1542 Words   |  7 PagesOccupational Therapy: What Puts it Above the Rest Occupational Therapy is one among many other therapeutic ways in which to correct a physical or mental problem. The main goal of this type of therapy is â€Å"to enable people to participate in the activities of everyday life† (Definition of Occupational Therapy). Through Occupational Therapy, there is hope to regain majority to full use in the area that was damaged. There are many different situations in which this type of therapy could be requiredRead MoreEssay on Why I Want to Study Physical Therapy781 Words   |  4 PagesThe occupation that interests me the most is physical therapy. Physical therapy interested me ever since I began getting involved in gyms. 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Wednesday, January 1, 2020

Is Reaching A Comfortable Retirement - 870 Words

Reaching retirement is one of the most important life events people will experience. How do you see yourself after retiring? Most people want to be able to retire comfortable, but the reality is that is not possible for some members of society. The reality is that for some seniors, living in poverty is potential issue. Reaching a comfortable retirement varies around the world and can be affected by gender, race, and social class. First, retirement varies according to gender. Women earn less than men in every nation. Full-time working women in the United States average only 72% of what men make and in some countries the percentage is even less (Henslin 300). Women tend to start working later in their life, usually after years of staying†¦show more content†¦Regardless of the changing times, women are earning less than men and therefore it will take them longer to be financially stable in order to reach a sustainable retirement age. Gender isn’t the only thing that affects retirement but so does an individual’s race. Retirement varies among members of society according to race. By 2030, it is projected that 25 percent of older persons will be from ethnic minority groups (â€Å"Fact Sheet†). Up to 23 percent of older African Americans and 19 percent of older Hispanics live in poverty compared with the estimated 8.9 percent older white Americans who live in poverty (â€Å"Fact Shee t†). White Americans typically have better living standards in comparison to African Americans or Hispanics. This is because white Americans are statistically more likely to finish high school and go to college. Statistically, African Americans average only 59 percent of white income and one of every five African American families makes less than $15,000 a year (Henslin 347). White Americans have more opportunities to succeed than African Americans or Hispanics that are living in America. African Americans who do the same work as white Americans make less money. Now imagine being a female and African American and approaching retirement age. Not only are they female who have lower wages than men, but they also are ethnically in a lower wage class too. Retirement is strongly